ISSUE PAPER RAND
GLOBALIZATION’S SECURITY IMPLICATIONS
Lynn E. Davis
Globalization stands out as a multidimensional phenomenon. The fact that the world is becoming a global village simplifies way of doing things across the scope of social, political and economic fronts. However the sad side of it is the security proliferation threats that is presented by globalization.
Owing to the easy flow of information, opening up of democracies and a people’s integration, most of the threats thus presented have become of global scope for instance, the manifestation of the September 11th attack on the US World trade center.
This paper thus focuses on both the threats and opportunities fostered by globalization.
They are wide spread just to mention; proliferation of weapons, cyber-attacks, ethnic violence, global crime, drug trafficking, environmental degradation and the spread of infectious diseases.
Proliferation of Dangerous Weapons
Attention is given to weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and their overall threat poised herein. The National strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction issued in Dec 2002 defines three pillars to combat WMD; Counter-proliferation/interdiction, Strengthened nonproliferation/deterrence and Consequence management/defense.
The strategy’s second, nonproliferation pillar involves these elements; diplomacy, multilateral regimes, threat reduction programs and controls on exports and nuclear materials.
In the strategy thus presented, the administrations alternative suggestions for international and domestic legal constraints remain vague. At the center stage information transfer around the globe is credited for the creation of most dangerous weapons.
Technological innovations should be vetted in bid to address the overall issue of weaponry and proliferation. In the same case there is to be domestic and multilateral controls for arms checking on both imports and exports. The current multilateral proliferation regimes such as the US should offer checks and balances as far as commercial trade is concerned within democracies.
Having presented such an elaborate background check governments should do a cost benefit analysis to reach decision of whether it’s worth to pursue weapon proliferation strategies at the impending prevalence of losing business and or breaking ties.
The only success that can be recorded here is by the combination of presented strategies. Lack of which will see a world where governments and terrorists develop and use weapons uncontrolled.
Other Transnational Threats
Information technologies and systems are at the heart of globalization. They are however faced with the dangers of cyber-attacks threats alongside the overall after use impacts of Global warming that leads to degradation of the ecosystem.
In between and as part of the wider threat caused by primarily ecosystem disruptions, there is the danger of wide spread disease HIV/AIDS just to mention that poised on globalization is a growing threat thanks to easy flow of people
There is also widespread of violence across borders owing from disrupting economies and widening political democracies. The social set up too is widening thanks to globalization and in a way contributing to the foreseen violence.
Governments in counter fighting such threats should put in place a combination of both preventive and reactive measures, programs and or policies that are cost effective even though mostly theoretical.
Governments and private businesses across the globe should collaborate in coming up with strategies to help scale down Cyber threats.
Abating global warming and or climate change calls for mainly human behavior change to cut down on the consumerism behavior and adopt such steps as recycle. The Kyoto Protocol gave a fair analysis of such possibilities.
Violence management will depend on individual states scenarios. Disease management might be addressed by global surveillance alongside delivery of medical goods and services.
Governments and private businesses around the world should combine efforts in acting to combat such threats. To like input strategic information systems management. Aid should be directed to the $62 billion needed for health care. It thus needs taking politically difficult steps.
Underlying causes of Transnational Threats
Subject to globalization, significant economic gains accrue from the worldwide expansion of trade and global investment. With it however comes the challenge of dealing with the aftermaths of such progression including but not limited to economic disparities, widening social stratification classes, immigration issues, in attendance to environmental safety and the widening youth employability.
As presented above, Addressing the problematic economic effects is important for both economic and Security reasons.
Opportunities for Economic Growth and Building Democracy
Global technological and economic growth offer opportunity to advance economic prosperity and Political advancement. Evidence shows economic growth reduces poverty and global inequality.
Governments policies have instilled efforts to steer economic growth and poverty reduction this includes both Fiscal and Monetary policies, encouraging investments, checking on trade liberalization and removal of barriers visa vis more attention to investing in Human capital and rooting out corruption.
Expansive democracies are encouraged around the world characterized by; public accountability, respecting the will of the majority and Human rights, free presentation of views and the rule of law.
Democracy and or transition to democracy empower people placing them in a position to maximize on their economic and available resources. However with the transition comes instability and conflict majorly due to resistance to change by the minority since in its essence Democracy is a game of Numbers
The problem is staged at the point of translating these theories into practice since resource commitments are measured as a result of GDP with little reference to Programmatic output. At the center stage is political debates.
Thus there’s the inevitable need to make the MDGs; Millennium Development Goals credible. By costing them and having confirmed resource allocation assigned.
Secondly there is need to look into the international aid with aspects of the poorest countries visa vis countries exhibiting good governance and the issue of corruption and or dealing with private individuals where there is need.
The third aspect is the integration of democracy building programs into efforts to reduce poverty. In what always comparisons be made between previous assistance and more attention be directed to making the regimes more liberal.
Collective International Decision making Processes
Thus it calls for collective bargain approach among stake holders; governments, multilateral institutions, private businesses and NGOs among others.
Such effort however face challenges; unwillingness to exercise leadership, divergent international community, lack of accountability within NGOs and private businesses.
The G-8 role comes into focus with the most initiatives fronted; Kyoto Global warming negotiations, The HIV/AIDS global assistance initiative, MDGs and World summit on Sustainable development largely failing to set realistic goals. And thus the eight countries influential as they are they should put their best foot forward and engage in a more effective decision-making process in the political realm.
Rather than just setting lofty targets, the governments should do more and step up to issues not put them aside. Thus there is to be concrete plan of actions attaining to the issues at hand.
There rises the dire need to enlarge the G-8 caucus by inviting leaders from other countries rather than imposing the decisions of the G-8 by and large. The G-8 countries should focus on critical security threats and economic opportunities.
The international community understands globalization far well. There is need for research but the issue of weapon proliferation needs urgent attention and analysis.
Governments are not legislating serious strategies to combat transnational threats other than terrorism and weapon proliferation. Goals are set out but no follow up implementation is steered. Theirs missing link between responsibility for security and globalization opportunities.
The US should take up the lead in making the G-8 more deliverable. In the same connection the international community should develop better policies and or strategies steered towards checks and balances for globalization and the aspect of international threats.
There is to be a shift from the traditional ways of dealing with security pegged on the changing times and more modern options explored.
The military to has a role to play with regards to transnational security they are urged to be more responsive since the issue of weapon proliferation sounds like non-combatable thus the looming threats from failed globalization.