QUESTION:Based on World Bank Report 2003.

From the interpretation of the World Bank report of 2003, explain 5 development factors that would drive the transformation of your community.




Picking from the discussions on the World Bank Report of 2003,Efforts to maintain collective security are at the heart of human history: from the earliest times, the recognition that human safety depends on collaboration has been a motivating factor for the formation of village communities, cities, and nation-states. The 20th century was dominated by the legacy of devastating global wars, colonial struggles, and ideological conflicts, and by efforts to establish international systems that would foster global peace and prosperity. To some extent these systems were successful—wars between states are far less common than they were in the past, and civil wars are declining in number.

Yet, insecurity not only remains, it has become a primary development challenge of our time. One-and-a-half billion people live in areas affected by fragility, conflict, or large-scale, organized criminal violence, and no low-income fragile or conflict-affected country has yet to achieve a single United Nations Millennium Development Goal (UN MDG). New threats—organized crime and trafficking, civil unrest due to global economic shocks, terrorism—have supplemented continued preoccupations with conventional war between and within countries. While much of the world has made rapid progress in reducing poverty in the past 60 years, areas characterized by repeated cycles of political and criminal violence are being left far behind, their economic growth compromised and their human indicators stagnant.

For those who now live in more stable neighborhoods, it may seem incomprehensible how prosperity in high-income countries and a sophisticated global economy can coexist with extreme violence and misery in other parts of the globe. The pirates operating off the coast of Somalia who prey on the shipping through the Gulf of Aden illustrate the paradox of the existing global system. How is it that the combined prosperity and capability of the world’s modern nation-states cannot prevent a problem from antiquity? How is it that, almost a decade after renewed international engagement with Afghanistan, the prospects of peace seem distant? How is it that drug traffickers can terrorize entire urban communities? How is it that countries in the Middle East and North Africa could face explosions of popular grievances despite, in some cases, sustained high growth and improvement in social indicators?


Five development factors that would drive the transformation of my community

From the interpretation of the World Bank report of 2003, The Factors that cause Economic Snarl down is as below, upon which we base on solving to drive economic transformation of our community:

1.Low income levels, low opportunity and cost of rebellion

Over and over again in Kenya, The Gap between the minority Rich and the majority poor is been ever widening. Kenya as a third world country has a majority of the poor living under a dollar earning a day. In solving this communities need to embark on expansive Economic rebuilding to bridge the gap.

2.Youth unemployment

Youth unemployment menace has for a long time now been a menace to write home about since time immemorial. It is often said ignoring the youth is failing the nation. Thus in seeking transformative development, there’s need to work on incorporating Youth in alternative employment opportunities and well thought around IGAs Income Generating Activities.

3. Natural resource wealth

A good symbol of natural wealth in Kenya is Land and dating to Historical Days, Land has been a key sources of communal conflict rather than the source of wealth it is supposed to be. Thus approaching this factor, there’s immediate need to embrace modern cross cutting Land and natural resources management Policies that will culminate in Economic transformation.

4. Severe corruption

Third World Countries are left behind in development due to majorly Severe Corruption by Governments of the day. Thus for transformative development, There has to be extreme watch dog role to The Corruption menace to scale it down to levels of sustainability.

5. Rapid urbanization

Over the recent past, Kenya has experienced, rapid expansive urbanization. When not handled well, such scenarios turn dangerous. Pinpointing it as a development factor, we can make good positive use of the change by turning urban centers into manageable business hubs.



Leslie, Glaister. 2010. “Confronting the Don: The Political Economy of Gang Violence in Jamaica.” Small Arms Survey, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva.

Loayza, Norman, Pablo Fajnzylber, and Daniel Lederman. 2002a. “Inequality and Violent Crime.” Journal of Law and Economics45 (1): 1–40. 2002b. “What Causes Violent Crime?” European Economic Review

McNeish, John-Andrew. 2010. “Natural Resource Management: Rethinking Resource Conflict.” Background paper for the WDR 2011.

Menkhaus, Ken. 2006. “Governance without Government in Somalia: Spoilers, State Building, and the Politics of Coping.” International Security31 (3): 74–106. 2010. “Somalia and the Horn of Africa.” Background paper for the WDR 2011.

Messick, Richard. 2011. “Anti-Corruption Approaches in Nigeria and Haiti.” Background note for the WDR 2011.

Murdoch, James C., and Todd Sandler. 2002. “Economic Growth, Civil Wars, and Spatial Spill overs.”



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