PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT.
Good Management is working through others to accomplish tasks that help fulfill organizational objectives as efficiently as possible. Discuss this statement in relation to Henri Fayols 14 Principles of Management and Give Contemporary Examples.
Management: the act or skill of controlling and making decisions about a business, department, sports team, etc. : the people who make decisions about a business, department, sports team, etc. : the act or process of deciding how to use something
Fayols Principles: Henri Fayol was a French management theorist who lived from 1841-1925. Although he was an engineer by trade, he spent the vast majority of his working years as a manager at a French mining organization. The last 30 years with the company were spent as the managing director. It was through this practical experience that Fayol first realized the lack of education when it came to the concept of management
Good Management is working through others to accomplish tasks that help fulfill organizational objectives as efficiently as possible.
Management Principles developed by Henri Fayol:
Division of work:
Work should be divided among individuals and groups to ensure that effort and attention are focused on special portions of the task. Fayol presented work specialization as the best way to use the human resources of the organization.
The concepts of authority and responsibility are closely related. authority was defined by Fayol as the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. responsibility involves being accountable, and is therefore naturally associated with authority. Whoever assumes authority also assumes responsibility.
A successful organization requires the common effort of workers. Penalties should be applied judiciously to encourage this common effort.
Unity of command:
Workers should receive orders from only one manager.
Unity of direction:
The entire organization should be moving towards a common objective in common.
Subordination of individual interests to the general interests:
The interests of one person should not take priority over the interests of the organization
Many variables, such as cost of living, supply of qualified personnel, general business conditions, and success of the business, should be considered in determining rates
Fayol defined centralization as lowering the importance of the subordinate role. Decentralization is increasing the importance. the degree to which centralization or decentralization should be adopted depends on the specific organization in which the manager is working.
Managers in hierarchies are part of a chain like authority scale. Each manager, from the first line supervisor to the president, possesses certain amounts of authority. The president possesses the most authority; the first line supervisor the least. Lower level managers should always keep upper level managers informed of their work activities. The existence of a scalar chain and adherence to it are necessary if the organization is to be successful.
For the sake of efficiency and coordination, all materials and people related to a specific kind of work should be treated as equally as possible.
All employees should be treated as equally as possible.
Stability of tenure of personnel:
Retaining productive employees should always be a high priority of management. Recruitment and selection costs, as well as increased product-reject rates are usually associated with hiring new workers.
Management should take steps to encourage worker initiative, which is defined as new or additional work activity undertaken through self-direction.
Espirit de corps:
Management should encourage harmony and general good feelings among employees. This in Example is the Team Get together activities.
In his works, Fayol goes to great detail to explain what each principle means to him. Fayol defines the order principle as the systematic, orderly and proper arrangement of people, places and things. In his explanation of the concept of order, Fayol felt that there was no perfect order to anything, but that any form of disorder was unacceptable. Disorder, according to Fayol, led to lost time and increased mistakes, which in turn led to lost productivity and increased costs. Fayol felt that if the right employee was in the right place and doing the right job, then productivity would increase, as would profit. He also felt that having employees’ work at tasks that maximized their skills would lead to proficient workers, higher productivity and larger profit margins.
- Kadambari Ventaka Narasiham (2005) Short Biography of Henry Fayol, the Management Thinker and Worker.
- Peter F. Drucker The Effective Executor.
- Peter F. Drucker: Management, Tasks and Responsibilities and Practices.