PLANNING: The Elements and the Process.



Planning (also called forethought) is the process of thinking about and organizing the activities required to achieve a desired goal. It involves the creation and maintenance of a plan, such as psychological aspects that require conceptual skills. There are even a couple of tests to measure someone’s capability of planning well. As such, planning is a fundamental property of intelligent behavior. Also, planning has a specific process and is necessary for multiple occupations (particularly in fields such as management, business, etc.). In each field there are different types of plans that help companies achieve efficiency and effectiveness. An important, albeit often ignored aspect of planning, is the relationship it holds to forecasting. Forecasting can be described as predicting what the future will look like, whereas planning predicts what the future should look like for multiple scenarios. Planning combines forecasting with preparation of scenarios and how to react to them.


a. Planning is goal oriented.

b.Planning is a basic management function.

c. planning is a continuous process.

d. Planning is a continuous process.

e. Planning is an intellectual process it involves the use of the mind where imagination, foresight and sound judgement are needed.

d.Planning involves a choice i.e It pre-supposes the existence of alternatives.

e.Planning is an integrated process different plans are interrelated

d. Planning is directed towards efficiency.




1. Identify the opportunities in the internal and external environment.

2. Establish the objectives.

3. Develop a premises: assumptions in which plans are to be carried out.

4. Determine alternative courses.

5. Evaluate alternatives by weighing them in light of the premises and goals.

6. Select a course from the alternatives available.

7. Develop plans to support the basic plans (Derivative plans)

8. Convert the plans into Budgets.





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